1) You begin your survey at the summit of Mount Ruapehu (elevation = 2797 m, barometric pressure = 540 mmHg) on the North Island where you find a small community of insects. The relative humidity at the site is 52% and the temperature is 10°C. What is the partial pressure of nitrogen in the air at the summit?
2) Your next stop is Rotorua where you examine a group of aquatic insects living in a small pond that is fed by one of the many thermal springs in the area. The elevation is 750 m (695 mmHg), the relative humidity is 75%, and the temperature is 20oC. What is the oxygen content (mlO2 / l water) of the water?
3) You then travel west to the Waitomo Caves to examine a large underground freshwater lake in a newly discovered deep cavern that is inhabited by an endemic species of blind catfish (elevation = -156m, barometric pressure = 775 mmHg. The temperature is 15oC and the relative humidity is 90%. What is the tension of carbon dioxide in the lake water?
4) While exploring the lake in the deep cavern, you find a small pool on the shore of the lake that is fed by a saline spring. Analysis of the water shows it to have approximately the same salinity as seawater. The environment of the pond is otherwise identical to that of the freshwater lake (elevation = -156m, barometric pressure = 775 mmHg, temperature = 15oC, relative humidity = 90%). Would the tension of oxygen in the small saline pool be greater than, less than, or equal to the tension of oxygen in the lake?
Write the letter of the correct answer in the blank on the left side of the page.
5)____Nearly 70% of the fat free vertebrate body is water. The largest percentage of the water is found in the (a. intracellular; b. interstitial; c. blood) compartment.
6)____Suppose that you enclose a sample of air from inside Wilson Hall (temperature = 23oC, Relative Humidity = 57%) in a tightly sealed Zip-Lock bag. If you took this bag outside (while keeping it tightly sealed) and the temperature of the air in the bag decreased to 9oC, the relative humidity of the air in the bag would (a. increase; b. decrease; c. not change).
7)____The heat produced, per liter oxygen, by the oxidation of carbohydrate is (a. much greater than; b. much less than; c. approximately equal to) that produced, per liter oxygen, by the oxidation of fat.
8)____Suppose that you are studying respiration during locomotion of a rabbit hopping at high speed. You place a small instrument pack on the animal that monitors the stride frequency and the breathing frequency. If the rabbit is hopping with a frequency of 3 Hz (3 hops per second), which of the following breathing frequencies are most likely to be recorded? (a. 1.5 Hz; b. 4 Hz; c. 7 Hz).
9)____The rate of diffusion of oxygen in water is (a. much faster than; b. much slower than; c. approximately the same as) the rate of diffusion of oxygen in air.
The flow of blood through a portion of an unusual circulatory system is illustrated below. Fill in the blanks with the number identifying the correct answer from the list below. The fluid has viscosity (i.e., it is not an ideal fluid).
10) The velocity at point A is _____ that at point B.
11) The pressure at point A is _____ that at point D.
12) In three minutes, the volume of water flowing past point A is ____ that at point B.
13) The tension in the wall at point B is ______ that at point A.
14) If the blood is stationary for a moment, the pressure at point C is ____ that at point D.
15)____A decrease in oxygen tension in the blood would be expected to (a. greatly increase; b. slightly decrease; c. have relatively little effect on) the respiratory ventilation volume of mammals.
16)____During exhalation, most of the air leaving the posterior air sacs of a bird (a. exits the mouth; b. enters the anterior air sacs; c. flows into the lungs).
17)____During inhalation, most of the air that enters the mouth of a bird (a. enters the lungs; b. enters the anterior air sacs; c. enters the posterior air sacs).
18)____The primary function of the air sacs of birds is (a. in gas exchange; b. as bellows to move the air in and out; c. to alter the center of gravity of the bird for flight).
19)____During the “fluttering” phase of cyclical respiration in insects, the partial pressure of oxygen in the tracheal system (a. increases; b. decreases; c. remains relatively constant).
20)____The highest partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the tracheal system of an insect undergoing cyclical respiration would be observed at the end of the (a. “open” phase; b. “closed” phase; c. “fluttering” phase).
21)____Suppose that you decide to repeat Scholander’s famous experiment that demonstrated the existence of facilitated diffusion. You have samples both of fish hemoglobin (MW 68,000) and also the hemoglobin from an earthworm, Lumbricus (MW 2,946,000). The rate of facilitated diffusion of the fish hemoglobin would be expected to be (a. greater than; b. less than; c. equal to) that of the earthworm.
Fill in the blanks describing the mammalian circulatory system with the number indicating the correct answer.
1. aorta 4. arteries
2. veins 5. arterioles
3. capillaries 6. vena cava
22)____ Largest aggregate cross-sectional area
23)____ Contains largest volume of blood
24)____ Highest velocity
25)____ Lowest velocity
26)____ Lowest pressure
27)____Suppose that you are a comparative physiologist who is designing a recirculating seawater system that you intend to use for maintaining fish. You find that the volume flow rate of water (volume/time) that is pumped to the aquarium from the reservoir and filter system is too low. Using your knowledge of fluid mechanics you decide to increase the diameter of the pipe from 6 cm to 8 cm in order to increase the flow rate to the aquarium. The length of the pipe and the pressure developed by the pump are unchanged. If the volume flow rate with the 6 cm diameter pipe was 2 liters/min, what would be the volume flow rate with the 8 cm diameter pipe?
Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves (1, 2, & 3) are graphed to the right. Fill in the blank with the number indicating the correct curve or with the correct value
28) If curve 2 characterizes the behavior of maternal blood, curve ____ most likely characterizes the blood of the fetus.
29) If CO2 is removed from the blood sample represented by curve 2, you predict that the curve would shift towards the position of curve ____.
30) The approximate P50 for curve 1 is ______
31) An increase in pH would shift curve 2 towards the position of curve ____.
32) An increase in 2,3 diphosphoglycerate would cause curve 2 to shift towards the position of curve ____
33) If curve 2 is that of a hare, curve ____ is that of a hippopotamus.
34) If these curves represent the same blood sample at 25ºC, 20ºC, and 15ºC, curve ____ would be the sample at 25ºC.
35) If curve 2 is that of myoglobin, curve ____ is most likely the curve for hemoglobin.
36)____The total amount of energy produced by aerobic metabolism of one gram of carbohydrate is (a. greater than; b. less than; c. equal to) that produced by the metabolism of one gram of fat.
37)____Suppose that you have a small flow-measuring device with which you can measure the velocity of blood flow in an artery at any point across the cross-section of the lumen. You would find the highest velocity of flow (a. in the center of the artery; b. at the wall of the artery; c. between the wall and the center).
38)____The buccal pump and the opercular pump of the gill ventilation system of a fish are coordinated during the pumping cycle so that the pressure in the mouth is (a. typically higher than; b. typically lower than; c. almost always the same as) the pressure in the opercular cavity.
39)____At the normal pH of mammalian blood, most of the total carbon dioxide present is in the form of (a. carbonic acid; b. bicarbonate ion; c. carbonate ion; d. a dissolved gas).
40)____Blood is an example of a Non-Newtonian fluid. The apparent viscosity of blood (a. increases; b. decreases; c. does not change) as the blood flows from the capillaries to the veins.
41)____If the colloidal osmotic pressure is 25 mmHg and the hydrostatic pressure at a particular point in the capillary is 35 mmHg, one would expect (a. reabsorption; b. no fluid movement; c. bulk filtration) to occur at that point.
Fill in the blank with the correct word or words.
42) An enzyme called ________________________________________accelerates the formation of carbon dioxide from H2CO3.
43) The enzymes that digest proteins are divided into two groups according to where in the molecule they act. ________________________________________ hydrolyze a terminal peptide bond in a long polypeptide chain.
44) In the gills of many animals the direction of the flow of water over the gill is opposite to the direction of flow of blood through the gills. Such an arrangement is called ____________________________ flow and is highly advantageous for the exchange of gases with the water.
45) A glucose polymer of plants called _________________________ is extremely insoluble and difficult to digest. In fact, no vertebrate produces the enzymes required for its digestion.
46&47) The bubble-like shape and the curvature of the alveoli of the lung mean that the ____________________________ of the moist inner surface tends to make the “bubbles” contract and disappear. This tendency is minimized by the presence on the inner surface of the alveoli of substances called ____________________________________________.
48) The finest branches of the internal air-filled tubes of the insect respiratory system are called ______________________. They can be as little as 0.5 µm in diameter, and can extend into individual cells, such as muscle fibers.
49) _________________________________ is a copper-containing respiratory pigment that occurs only in mollusks and arthropods, but nevertheless, next to hemoglobin, it is the most widely distributed respiratory pigment.
50) Some fish do not show the movements of the mouth and operculum that characterize the buccal pumping mechanism. Instead, they swim with their mouth partly open and water flows continuously over the gills. This is referred to as _________________________________________________.