Part one:1. What is the approximate volume of each of your body fluid compartments?2. Which routes of water gain and loss from the body are regulated?3. How do angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, and antidiuretic hormone regulate the volume and osmotic pressure of body fluids?4. What are the functions of electrolytes in the body?5. How do proteins, bicarbonate ions, and phosphate ions help maintain the pH of body fluids?6. What are the major physiological effects of acidosis and alkalosis7. How are skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue related to fluid and electrolyte imbalance?
Part Two:1. How does the scrotum protect the testes?2. What are the principal events of spermatogenesis and where do they occur3. What are the roles of FSH, LH, testosterone, and in- hibin in the male reproductive system? How is secretion of these hormones controlled?4. Trace the course of sperm through the system of ducts from the seminiferous tubules through the urethra?5. What is semen? What is its function?6. Describe the principal events of oogenesis.7. Where are the uterine tubes located? What is their8. Describe the histology of the uterus.9. How does the histology of the vagina contribute to its function?10. Describe the structure and support of the mammary glands.11. Describe the function of each of the following hormones in the uterine and ovarian cycles: GnRH, FSH, LH, es- trogens, progesterone, and inhibin.12. Briefly outline the major events and hormonal changes of each phase of the uterine cycle, and correlate them with the events of the ovarian cycle.13. Prepare a labeled diagram of the major hormonal changes that occur during the uterine and ovarian cycles14. How do oral contraceptives reduce the likelihood of pregnancy?15. Why do some methods of birth control protect against sexually transmitted diseases, but others do not?16. What changes occur in males and females at puberty?17. What do the terms menarche and menopause mean?
Part three:1. Where does fertilization normally occur?2. Describe the layers of a blastocyst and their eventual fates.3. When, where, and how does implantation occur?4. What are the functions of the trophoblast?5. Describe the formation of the amnion, yolk sac, and chorion and explain their functions.6. How do the three primary germ layers form? Why are they important?7. Describe how neurulation occurs. Why is it significant?8. How does the placenta form and what is its function?9. Why are the second through fourth weeks of develop- ment so crucial?10. What changes occur in the limbs during the second half of the embryonic period?11. What are the general developmental trends during the fatel period?12. Select any one body structure and trace development through the reminder of the fetal period?13. List the hormones involved in pregnancy, and describe the functions of each.14. What structural and functional changes occur in the mother during pregnancy15. How do changes during early and late pregnancy affect the ability to exercise?16. What hormonal changes induce labor?17. What happens during the stage of dilation, the stage of expulsion, and the placental stage of true labor?18. Which hormones contribute to lactation? What is the function of each?