Solution-Why are the baby leaf monkeys a bright orange color

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Answer these questions before watching the video by using your text or searching online for answers. Then use the link above to watch the film and answer the other questions.

1. All animals in this episode of Life are from the Primate order. This is the full classification of the Primate order. List one major characteristic that helps define each level.

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia

2. A cladogram for the major groups of primates is shown to the right. The order is divided into two categories: prosimians and anthropoids.

a. Which group evolved earliest?b. Which group(s) evolved most recently?c. Would humans be considered prosimians or anthropoids?d. According to this cladogram, which group of primates is most closely related to humans?

Primates are divided into two groups: Prosimians and Anthropoids. This table summarizes the differences.

                                    Prosimians                                                                           AnthropoidsBrain Size                      Smaller                                                                                   LargerNails vs. Claws                Claws                                                                                      NailsVision                  Partial binocular vision                                                                    Binocular and color vision                     (both eyes facing the same direction working together)Body Size                      Smaller                                                                                   LargerHabitats                Tropical rainforests                                                   Tropical rainforests, grasslands, temperate forests, wetlandsDiurnality            Either diurnal (daytime) or nocturnal (nighttime)                                 Almost all diurnalOlfaction               Strong sense of smell                                                             Weaker sense of smellOpposable Digits   Some have opposable thumbs and big toes               All have opposable thumbs; Most have opposable big toes


Answer these questions from the opening segment of the video.

3. Describe what is unique about primates in regard to these characteristics:

a. Hands -b. Eyes -c. Intelligence -d. Social Interactions -e. Memory –

Hamadryas Baboons

4. Are these baboons prosimians or anthropoids?

5. Describe the social hierarchy of these baboons.

6. What is the cause of the conflict between the two troops of baboons?

Japanese Macaque “Snow Monkeys”

7. Are these macaques prosimians or anthropoids?

8. These animals are the most northernly-living monkeys. How are they built differently than other monkeys to survive the harsh winters of the Japanese Alps?

9. Describe the social hierarchy of these macaques and how it relates to the hot springs.

Western GorillaGorilla gorilla

10. Are gorillas prosimians or anthropoids?

11. Describe the social hierarchy of these gorillas.

12. Would these gorillas be considered herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores?

13. How does the silverback male gorilla communicate his territory to other gorillas?

Spectral TarsierTarsius tarsier

14. Are tarsiers prosimians or anthropoids?

15. Tarsiers are completely carnivorous. What is their food source?

16. The tarsiers have three sets of adaptations that enable them to be successful nocturnal hunters. Describe the adaptations tarsiers have in each of these body parts:

a. Eyeballs:b. Ears:c. Legs:

17. How do the tarsiers communicate with each other? What reasons do they have to communicate?

18. The Lar Gibbons also communicate, but for a different reason. Explain what.

Phayre’s Leaf MonkeysTrachypithecus phayrei

19. Are the leaf monkeys prosimians or anthropoids?

20. Why are the baby leaf monkeys a bright orange color?

21. Describe the social system of leaf monkeys, especially in relation to caring for babies.

Ring-Tailed lemurLemur catta

22. Are the lemurs prosimians or anthropoids?

23. Explain how male and female ring-tailed lemurs use scent markers as a means of communication.

24. How do males compete for the opportunity to mate?

OrangutanPongo borneo

25. Are the Orangutans prosimians or anthropoids?

26. How long do Orangutans raise their young? Is this unusual?

27. What skills does the mother teach her child before it reaches adulthood?

Chacma baboonsPapio ursinus

28. Are the baboons prosimians or anthropoids?

29. Why is gathering food such a challenge for Chacma baboons?

30. What unusual food source do the baboons eat, and where do they find it?

31. What physical adaptations to the baboons have that allows them to eat mussels?

White-faced CapuchinsCebus capucinus

32. Are the capuchins prosimians or anthropoids?

33. If capuchin monkeys are not strong enough to open clams, how do they eat them?

34. What do brown-tufted capuchins do differently? Explain why this is considered a more advanced skill.

ChimpanzeesPan troglodytes

35. Are the chimpanzees prosimians or anthropoids?

36. Describe two examples of how the chimpanzees use tools.

37. Describe the skill of nut-cracking. Why is this considered a more advanced skill than the capuchins?

38. What unusual social characteristics do chimpanzees exhibit?

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