Bionic Human: Chapter 11 Assignment
Stem cells and tissue engineering
Differences Between Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells
Embryonic stem cells can become ALL cell types of the body because they are pluripotent. Adult stem cells were originally thought to be limited to differentiating into different cell types of their tissue of origin. However, evidence suggests that adult stem cell plasticity (see below) does indeed exist, increasing the number of cell types a given adult stem cell can become.
Large numbers of embryonic stem cells can be grown in culture relatively easily, while adult stem cells are rare in mature tissues and methods for expanding their numbers in cell culture are improving, but have not yet been optimized.
Plasticity: Defined as the ability of stem cells from one adult tissue to generate the differentiated cell types of another tissue.
Scaffold: The scaffold or three-dimensional (3-D) construct provides the necessary support for cells to proliferate and maintain their function. Ideally a scaffold should have the following characteristics:
• Three- dimensional and highly porous with an interconnected pore network for cell growth and flow transport of nutrients and metabolic waste
• Biocompatibile and Bioresorbable with a controllable degradation and reabsorption rate to match cell/tissue growth in vitro and/or in vivo.
• Suitable surface chemistry for cell attachment proliferation and differentiation
• Mechanical properties to match those of the tissues at the site of implantation
Instructions: Read Chapter 11 and review the slides to answer the following questions. AIDitionally, a paper listed on blackboard can provide for further assistance.
1. Name two sources of stem cells, either embryonic stem cells or adult stem cells.
2. What is a tissue engineering scaffold?
3. Give three examples of materials that can be used as a scaffold.
4. Name two types of polynucleotides found in our cells.
The human genetic information is stored in _________
5. What is pluripotency?
6. Name three polymers that are used in medicine.
7. Name two important considerations for an implantable material.
Chapter 11- Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine.
Text Book: Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine By Herman Cheung.