Solution-Define partial pressure, 1. Define partial

1. Define partial pressure and how it is calculated.

2. Compare the partial pressure at sea level and at the top of Mt. Everest. Explain why, if oxygen is still at the same concentration in both locations, the partial pressure of oxygen is different.

3. Write Fick’s equation of diffusion and explain how each variable influences gas exchange.

4. Discuss which part of Fick’s equation is most affected by being at sea level versus on top of Mt. Everest.

5. Explain why breathing compressed air helps humans climb to the top of Mt. Everest.

6. List three reasons why it is easier to obtain oxygen from air than from water.

7. Discuss adaptations different aquatic animals have to assist them in obtaining oxygen from water.

8. Explain why even though humans obtain oxygen from air they still deal with moving oxygen through water.

9. Explain why temperature increases are doubly problematic for aquatic animals.

10. Give examples of respiratory adaptations that enhance transport via the following means: surface area increase, ventilation, and perfusion.

11. Define ventilation and perfusion and how they affect Fick’s Law.

12. Diagram the ventilation and perfusion of a gill and explain how countercurrent flow enhances respiration.

13. Describe tidal ventilation.

14. Label the parts of the human respiratory system.

15. Discuss the function of the pleural membranes.

16. Describe the adaptations of the mammalian lung that provide a large surface area and minimize the diffusion path length.

17. Describe the mechanical events that produce inhalation and exhalation during normal breathing and exercise.

18. Label a figure depicting lung volume and changes in lung volume.

19. Discuss the function of the inspiratory and expiratory reserve volume.

20. Explain why the residual volume exists.

21. Discuss the structure and function of hemoglobin.

22. Explain the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin and how this is affected by PO2.

23. Explain how myoglobin acts as an oxygen reservoir to aid muscle action during exercise.

24. Compare the affinity of adult and fetal hemoglobin for oxygen.

25. Describe the effects of pH on hemoglobin and explain how that enhances the delivery of oxygen to tissues.

26. Describe the process of CO2 circulation in the blood.

27. Describe breathing regulation via the brain and the heart.

28. Discuss the relative effects of changes in PCO2 and PO2 on ventilation rates.

29. Predict the effects of low blood pH (also called acidosis) on ventilation rates.

30. Predict the effects of exposure to CO on oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood.

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