Which of the following is true regarding endocrine glands?
As the body matures, endocrine glands develop from specialized exocrine glands.
Endocrine glands empty their products into a duct.
Examples of endocrine glands include sweat glands and salivary glands.
Endocrine glands are connective tissues that are specialized to produce and secrete a product.
Endocrine glands produce and secrete hormones.
One of the most common ways to get information out to a wide audience in the least amount of time regarding “hot” topics in science is by using
peer reviewed journals
the Discovery channel on television
general interest news magazines or newspapers
Which of the following is not true regarding nucleotides?
An RNA nucleotide could be made up of ribose, a phosphate, and cytosine.
DNA nucleotides contain deoxyribose; RNA nucleotides contain sucrose.
There are four different DNA nucleotides.
RNA nucleotides are assembled into RNA by the process of dehydration synthesis.
Nucleotides are bonded together by covalent bonds between the sugars and the phosphates.
Which enzyme is a potentially useful indicator of certain types of cancers?
Which of the following is a true statement?
Molecules are considered to be the smallest unit capable of exhibiting all the characteristics of life.
Cells arise spontaneously from nonliving chemical elements.
All living things are made up of at least one cell.
Cells are incapable of maintaining homeostasis because they are too small.
Organisms composed of many cells are unicellular.
Which of the following is not true regarding the regulation of blood flow?
Blood flow to localized areas is adjusted to meet the requirements of that particular tissue.
In order to maintain homeostasis, arterial blood pressure is allowed to fluctuate so that the oxygen/nutrient demands of various tissues are met.
A constant blood pressure in the arteries is maintained through the regulation of heart rate and force of contraction.
Regulating the diameter of systemic arterioles helps to maintain constant blood pressure.
Baroreceptors are important in the regulation of blood pressure.
Most surveillance systems are passive and disease specific.
Which of the following is not true regarding the immune response?
The immune response uses chemical and phagocytic cells to destroy foreign cells.
Once initiated, the immune response provides protection for the entire body.
The key to immune response is the ability of the components involved to be able to distinguish between the body cells and foreign cells.
The immune response involves the activities of proteins, cells, and the lymphatic system.
The immune response involves the ability to “remember” exposures to pathogens in order to increase the rate of response upon subsequent infections by that pathogen.
The best definition of a poison is:
any chemical that is foreign to the body
any substance that can potentially produce toxicity
any substance that if present in the body in relatively small amounts that may produce serious injury
any poisonous substance produced by an organism
About 55% of whole blood is ____, which is mostly made up of water.
white blood cells
Disulfide bonds are most characteristic of which of the following levels of protein structure?
none of the above
Skin becomes less flexible as individual ages because of a decrease in the number of protein fibers associated with the dermis.
Red-green color blindness is an X-linked recessive disorder. Assume that mom is a carrier and dad is color blind. What is the chance that their son will inherit red-green color blindness?
Human cells, with the exception of the gametes, reproduce by mitosis.
A student noticed that every time he smelled a certain perfume in the hallway, it reminded him of his mother. This is due largely to the activity of the limbic system.
Bulk movement of water across plasma membranes and the exchange of oxygen from blood into cells are similar in that the method of transport is by
Excitatory neurotransmitters encourage the generation of new electrical impulses by
stimulating saltatory conduction.
stimulating depolarization of postsynaptic neurons.
inhibiting postsynaptic neurons from repolarizing.
inhibiting presynaptic neurons from depolarizing.
stimulating depolarization of presynaptic neuorons
Which of the following is not true regarding pneumonia?
It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath.
It ranks among the top 10 causes of death in North America.
It can be caused by a viral infection.
Symptoms result from inflammation of the lungs and secretion of excess fluid by the alveoli.
Vasoconstriction causes an increase in the diameter of blood vessels, thus causing an increase in blood flow to the tissues.
Dead and injured white blood cells are removed from circulation by the:
red bone marrow.
Which of the following membranes lines the airways and digestive tract?
When the amount of thyroxine in the body increases, the basal metabolic rate of the body also increases.
Which of the following would result in passive immunity?
past occurrence of an infection or disease
production of memory cells
movement of antibodies across the placenta from mother to child
stimulation of T cells and B cells by an antigen
Restriction enzymes are used in genetic engineering to cut DNA between specific base pairs in a DNA strand, resulting in DNA segments that are then used for further study and analysis.
Which of the following is not considered a potential problem when using retroviruses as gene delivery vectors?
Retroviruses splice their own RNA-based genetic code permanently into the DNA of the cells they infect.
Retroviruses generally insert foreign DNA into a cell only when the cell is dividing.
Retroviruses insert their genetic material randomly in the genome.
Retroviruses must be rendered harmless before being used.
Vasoconstriction and vasodilation of blood vessels are caused by a number of factors including:
closing/opening of precapillary sphincters
all of the above
In some cases, why doesn’t the immune system recognize and destroy a cancer?
Cancer cells that produce abnormal antigens sometimes shed them.
Cancer cells have less surface receptors needed for proper activation of T cells.
Cancer cells have enough “self” surface markers as to be identified as normal cells.
Cancer cells develop from normal cells that cannot regulate cell division.
all of the above
Which term describes an active, orderly process for eliminating genetically damaged or dead cells without inflammatory reactions?
When a blood pressure is taken by a medical professional, the pressure in the main veins is recorded.
Peer review is essential to the scientific process because
It ensures that the findings from experimentation are scrutinized for accuracy
it is the primary means for informing other scientists of new information in the field
the process can lead to improvements in articles prior to being published
the process immediately validates any hypothesis tested in the experiments
both A and C
Which of the following is an oligosaccharide?
Which of the following is not true regarding arrhythmias?
One type, known as ventricular fibrillation, is the leading cause of cardiac death in people who are otherwise in good health.
An artificial pacemaker can sometimes be used to correct this condition.
All forms of arrhythmias are considered serious medical conditions.
Arrhythmias can occur when heart muscle becomes damaged.
An ECG can be used to diagnose this condition.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn could result from which of the following situations?
mom is Rh+; fetus is Rh-
mom is Rh-; fetus is Rh+
mom is Rh+; fetus is Rh+
mom is Rh-; fetus is Rh-
either C or D
Cyanide is the most acutely toxic substance known.
The first successful treatment of a human genetic disorder through gene therapy was with a disorder known as:
severe combined immunodeficiency disease.
acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
Which of the following best explains how water moves freely across a plasma membrane?
Because of the charges on phospholipids, water moves directly through the phosopholipid bilayer.
Water is brought into the cell by endocytosis and released by exocytosis.
Because water is so important to a cell, it is actively transported across the membrane.
Water moves through protein-lined channels in the plasma membrane.
The passage of water across a plasma membrane requires facilitated transport.
Muscle cells store energy in the form of ________ until it is used for the production of ATP.
The more buffers present in a body fluid, the less stable the pH will be.
Which of the following is not true of influenza viruses?
All strains of influenza virus are highly pathogenic.
The influenza virus genome contains RNA rather than DNA.
Nutritional factors affect the ability of the influenza virus to cause infection.
The relationship between virus and host depends partially on haemaglutinin present on the viral surface.
Which of the following diseases is caused by a virus?
toxic shock syndrome
Why do some physicians advise patients with a blaIDer infection to drink a lot of cranberry juice?
Cranberry juice contains chemicals that kill viruses and bacteria.
The increased volume of fluid in the blaIDer causes bacterial cells to burst as they absorb the excess fluid.
Cranberry juice makes the urine more acidic, decreasing the rate at which microorganisms can grow and reproduce.
Cranberry juice increases the efficiency of urine production by the kidneys.
all of the above
Pharmaceutical companies prefer to genetically engineer large animals with human genes because it may be possible to obtain large amounts of the resulting protein from the animals’:
Not only does science involve gaining knowledge about the natural world, it also involves the process of obtaining that knowledge.
Translocation occurs when a piece of chromosome breaks off and is lost.
Which of the following best describes an angiogram?
an x-ray picture of blood vessels
a recording of heart sounds
use of a balloon to widen an artery
a sensation of pain in the chest associated with poor blood circulation to the heart
a recording of the electrical activity of the heart
Which of the following body fluids is not known to transmit HIV from human to human?
An increased risk for cardiovascular health problems is associated with:
an elevated level of hemoglobin.
high blood levels of HDLs.
decreased production of albumins.
high blood levels of LDLs.
low blood levels of LDLs.
The process by which the blastocyst becomes buried within the endometrial lining of the uterus is:
Which of the following is true regarding lung cancer?
Symptoms include chest pain, chronic cough, and wheezing.
Lung cancer may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation.
This type of cancer typically takes many years to develop.
Problems associated with lung cancer include inadequate exchange of gases in the alveoli and impairment of blood flow in the pulmonary blood vessels.
all of the above
State-level data on seasonal influenza are general, qualitative reports from state and territorial epidemiologists, summarizing weekly influenza activity, rather than specific numbers of infections.