Part A: Answer each of the following questions in one or two paragraphs.
1. Create two Punnett squares to display the outcome of the Fl generation and F2 gener¬ation from one of Mendel’s experiments with pea plants. Use the letter F to represent flower color, with purple as the dominant allele and white as the recessive allele. For each cross, what percent of the offspring is predicted to have each phenotype?
2. Beginning with fertilization, describe the main stages of animal development. Give a brief, simplified description of each stage.
3. Describe the process of natural selection in detail.
Part B: Answer each of the following questions in two to five sentences. Each answer is worth 4 points.
1. Briefly describe the three-domain system of classification.
2. Explain the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific law.
3. What are the functions of the three specialized tissues in plants? In which of these tissues does photosynthesis occur?
4. Describe the process of crossing-over during meiosis and explain the importance of crossing-over.
5. Briefly describe the three kinds of natural selection: directional, stabilizing, and disruptive.
6. Explain the difference between ionic bonds and covalent bonds.
7. Define cell. What are the two main tenets of cell theory?
8. What is the difference between protostomes and deuterostomes? Among living organisms, name at least one phylum example of each of these.
9. Briefly explain the functions of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons in the nervous system.
10. In the context of the science of ecology and the concept of niche specialization, briefly explain the competitive exclusion principle and resource portioning.