Question 1 Light dependent reactions are carried out both on and in between photosystems. This process is like the last stage of aerobic respiration in that both
Question 2 In the chloroplast, light dependent reactions take place in the __________________ while light independent reactions take place in the __________________.
Question 3 When your car engine burns the octane in gasoline, at least 50% of the energy of the octane
Question 4 The value of the three stages of aerobic respiration is their ability to break down glucose, a single molecule, with the resultant production of about
Question 5 Enzymes are important because they
Question 6 Accessory pigments and chlorophylls work together within the thylakoid membrane in clusters called __________ . They harvest light energy and use it to transfer electrons to _______________.
Question 7 Energyreleasing reactions drive biosynthetic ones forward by contributing to a pool of
Question 8 The energy storage molecule that connects endergonic and exergonic reactions, driving endergonic reactions forward, is
Question 9 ________ and ________ are products of aerobic respiration.
Question 10 The physicist’s definition of energy is _______________ for use in defining energy changes within a living cell.
Question 11 The final stage of aerobic respiration involves
Question 12 The cell’s pumping of substances against diffusion forces that would carry those substances the other way is termed
Question 13 An allosteric enzyme
Question 14 Each wavelength of light has its own
Question 15 The three metabolic pathways that make up aerobic respiration are really all parts of one larger pathway because
Question 16 Which of the following is not a product of the Krebs cycle?
Question 17 Which of the following phrases best describes the role of NADPH in photosynthesis?
Question 18 The process of __________ can be defined as about 30 individual, sequential chemical reactions that form three metabolic pathways: one in the cytoplasm and two within the mitochondrion.
Question 19 Griffith exposed weak living bacteria to just the fluids from dead virulent bacteria. Some of these weak bacteria became virulent and could now kill mice. What control experiment did he do to argue that his weak bacteria changed to virulence in these studies?
Question 20 Glucose + _________ + 36 ADP yields _________ + 6H2O + 36 _________.
Question 21 DNA is stored within the ____________ of a cell in a __________ fiber called chromatin.
Question 22 For most chemical reactions in the nonliving world, the energy required to break bonds in the reactant molecules
Question 23 _________ is a reactant in the process of aerobic respiration and _______ is a product of the same process.
Question 24 NADPH is formed when
Question 25 Existing chemical bonds between atoms are broken and new ones are formed between different atoms. This process
- For most chemical reactions in the non-living world, the energy required to break bonds in the reactant molecules
- In biosynthesis of a protein, energy for bonding amino acids together comes from
- A producer organism is called a “producer” because it produces
- Physicists define energy as
- Reactants like hydrogen and oxygen molecules and are converted into a product like water molecules in the course of
- Systems that convert energy from one form to another are
- In a long metabolic pathway, the multiple changes made to an initial reactant molecule are entirely controlled by
- Energy-releasing reactions drive biosynthetic ones forward by contributing to a pool of
- If bacteria can get their energy for life from a single kind of chemical reaction, then that reaction
- An endergonic reaction always
- An allosteric enzyme
- A useful way for a cell biologist to define energy is
- In nature, as energy freely changes from one form to another
- On a cold day, your cells depend on ________ to maintain an operating temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.
- Whenever chemical bonds are broken, energy is __________. Whenever chemical bonds form, energy is __________.
- Producer organisms convert _______ energy to chemical energy-the energy of C-H and C-O-H bonds.
- Three phosphate groups linked to a ribose sugar which, in turn, is linked to a pyrimidine base known as adenine: this phrase describes the structure of
- An excess amount of product accumulates at the end of a metabolic pathway. The product then binds to the allosteric site of the first enzyme along the pathway shutting down the pathway. We call this process
- The energy storage molecule that connects endergonic and exergonic reactions, driving endergonic reactions forward, is
- Existing chemical bonds between atoms are broken and new ones are formed between different atoms. This process
- The activation energy of a reaction can be lowered if the reaction is catalyzed by
- A single regulatory molecule can shut down multiple metabolic pathways if it is able to
- In respiration, chemical energy is transferred from glucose to ATP. The energy transfer however, is not 100% efficient. In the transfer, some of the energy is lost as
- Moving ions across a membrane requires energy when
- Which of the following substances would most likely enable a flagellum to drive a bacterium forward through the medium in which it is swimming?
- Metabolic pathways
- Glucose gets used up in muscle cells because
- Within the cell, useful chemical energy is held in stable form as
- In building a protein, when amino acids are to be bonded together
- Positively charged protons move freely from one side of the mitochondrial membrane to
- If moving ions across a membrane requires energy it is because
- To derive energy from an ATP molecule
- If the final product of a metabolic pathway begins to build up in excess, the pathway can often be slowed down by a process called
- Light dependent reactions of photosynthesis produce
- The wavelengths of light used in photosynthesis are found in the _________ portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
- When light of the correct wavelength hits a photosynthetic pigment molecule
- All of the six carbon atoms in each glucose molecule leave respiration in the form of carbon dioxide. Most of them leave during which part of aerobic respiration?
- Which of the following phrases best describes the role of NADPH in photosynthesis?
- In the process of glycolysis one molecule of _______ is converted to two molecules of __________.
- The overall process that uptakes energy-poor molecules (CO2 and H2O) from their reservoirs in nature and converts them into energy-rich molecules is
- The process of aerobic respiration begins with
- Photosynthesis and respiration are complementing processes within a global cycle known as the
- Photosynthesis and respiration are complementary processes within
- The value of the three stages of aerobic respiration is their ability to break down glucose, a single molecule, with the resultant production of about
- The Krebs cycle’s NADH products are of value because
- In photosynthesis, ______ and ______ are used to build_______ and release______.
- When electrons flow between photosystems, they ________ which can be used to generate new ____________ molecules.
- New molecules of glucose are produced
- Accessory pigments enable the chloroplast to
- In photosynthesis the H atoms used to make high-energy carbohydrates like glucose come from
- In the electron transfer phosphorylation process, ______ is a reactant and _____ is a product.
- In the chloroplast, light dependent reactions take place in the __________________ while light independent reactions take place in the __________________.
- If fermentation reactions did not occur on earth then in places where no oxygen is available
- Oxygen is an important molecule to both respiration and photosynthesis. If evolution created these two processes one after the other, which would probably have had to appear first on earth?
- During the electron transfer reactions, protons (H+ ions) are pumped (moved) to one side of the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. The value of this pumping is that the proton gradient is then used
- Fermentation of sugar causes grape juice to become wine. In fermentation, the two products given off are ____________ and _________. The latter product accumulates in the wine during the process.
- The three metabolic pathways that make up aerobic respiration are really all parts of one larger pathway because
- Which of the following is valuable as the most immediate source of the greatest amount of ATP energy given off during aerobic respiration?
- Light independent reactions serve to
- Identify the correct order of the processes of aerobic respiration
- In all of aerobic respiration, the last molecule waiting at the very end to accept electrons
- The “powerhouse” organelle within the cell in which electron transfer reactions are occur
- In the light-dependent reaction, the two photosystems work together to keep the concentrations of ______ and ______ appropriate for their amounts needed in the light-independent reaction
- During the entire aerobic respiration process, the breakdown of a single molecule of glucose results in the production of
- Which of the following is the most immediate source of the greatest amount of ATP energy given off during aerobic respiration?
- Fermentation of sugar causes bread dough to “rise”. In fermentation, the two products given off are ____________ and _________. The latter product evaporates from the bread during the baking process
- A chemoautotroph is an organism that gets its energy from _______________ instead of from _________ as photoautotrophic plants do. (Heterotrophs like humans use sugar for energy.)