We will spend a great deal of time in this course exploring the structure, function, and physiology of proteins, often ignoring the intricate, highly regulated processes of transcription and translation that produce them! The purpose of this problem set (probably a review for most of you) is to consider the link between genes and proteins.
After completing the reading from Alberts (refer to course information tab for instructions on how to access) related to genomic diversity and
transcription/translation, consider the following questions:
1) Choose three “classic” experiments that led to the acceptance of the central dogma and briefly describe the experiment and the conclusion.
2) Describe some of the mechanisms by which genomes evolve. Which do you think has the greatest impact and why?
3) How does diversity (or conservation) of the genome relate to genomics (the study of genomes)? In what ways is it beneficial? Detrimental?
There are no formal length requirements for this assignment, though each question should be able to be answered in a paragraph or two. When
possible, use specific examples and properly cite any outside references used.
1) Classic experiments supporting central dogma
The term “Central Dogma” was coined by Francis Crick. Central dogma in molecular biology stands for the elucidation for sequential flow of genetic information from genetic material to protein. It depicts thatinformation can’t be flown back from protein to DNA or RNA. Central dogma can be written as “DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein”, as stated by Crick, but later it has been found that DNA can be synthesized from a RNA template. Three classic experiments in support of central dogma are as discussed below (Cooper, S.; 1981).
Experiment 1: Griffith’s classic experiment
Experiment performed by Griffith concluded that the DNA of the virulent or capsulated S. pneumoniae was transferred to the non-virulent non-capsulated S. pneumoniae. Results of his experiment made it clear that only DNA can only be the cause for transformation of non-capsulated S. pneumonia capsulated S. pneumoniae. As polysaccharides, proteins or mRNA can be transferred from dead capsulated cells to the living non capsulated cells but those molecules can’t be replicated as the cell will grow.