Skeletal muscle-nervous-endocrine and digestive tissue

Skeletal Muscle Tissue Review

1. What is the functional unit of contraction in skeletalmuscle?
2. What are the two principle contractile proteins thatcompose the functional unit of contraction?
3. What is the specific relationship of the functional unitof contraction to the striated appearance of a skeletal musclefiber?
4. Would you characterize skeletal muscle as voluntary orinvoluntary?
5. Name the site of close juxtaposition of an axon terminalwith the muscle cell plasmalemma.
6. What is the name of the loose areolar connective tissuecovering of an individual muscle fiber?
7. The perimysium is a collagenous connective tissue layerthat groups several muscle fibers into bundles called:
8. Which connective tissue layer surrounds the entire muscleand merges with connective tissue of tendons and aponeuroses?

Nervous Tissue Review

9. What is the primary unit of function in nervoustissue?
10. Name the pale-staining region of the cell body from whichthe axon arises.
11. What is the general name for all support cells within theCNS?
12. Name the specific myelinating cell of the CNS.
13. What is the relationship of the endoneurium to the myelinsheath?

Endocrine Tissue Review

14. Why is the thyroid gland considered to be an endocrineorgan?
15. What hormone secreted by the pituitary gland controls thesynthesis and secretion of T3 and T4 (thyroxine)?
16. What is the function of calcitonin?
17. Which cells of the ovarian follicle secrete estrogen?
18. Which layer of the endometrium is shed during themenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle?
19. What is the function of the deep basal layer (stratumbasalis) of the endometrium?
20. What comprises a serosa?
21. How does the serosa of the uterus, where present, differfrom visceral peritoneum?
22. Do the islets of Langerhans cells secrete their hormonesinto the same duct system used by the exocrine secretory cells?

Cardiovascular Tissue Review

23. Which component of the intercalated disk is a strongintercellular junction that functions to keep cells from beingpulled apart during contraction?
24. What is a functional syncytium?
25. Which component of the intercalated disk is a junctionthat provides the intercellular communication required for themyocardium to perform as a functional syncytium?
26. The tunica media of the aorta would have a much greaterproportion of what type of tissue than a small artery?
27. In general, which vessel would have a larger lumen, anartery or its corresponding vein?
28. Why would the tunica media and tunica adventitia not bepresent in a capillary?

Respiratory Tissue Review

29. What are the primary functions of the respiratoryepithelium?
30. Why doesn’t gas exchange occur in bronchi?
31. What is the primary functional unit of the lung?
32. The alveolar wall is very delicate and subject tocollapse. Why is there no smooth muscle present in its wallsfor support?
33. What are the three basic components of the air-bloodbarrier?

Digestive Tissue Review

34, Are salivary glands endocrine or exocrine glands?
35. Which salivary secretions, mucus or serous, is more thinand watery in consistency?
36. Briefly explain the difference between an adventitia anda serosa.
37. What is the function of the mucus secreted by surfacemucous cells?
38. Why is it important for the duodenum to aID largequantities of mucus (from Brunner’s glands) to the partiallydigested food entering it from the stomach?
39. Why is it important to have an abundance of mucous gobletcells in the colon?
40. What general type of cell is the phagocytic Kupffercell?
41. Blood in the portal vein flows directly from whatorgans?
42. What is the function of bile in the digestiveprocess?

Renal Tissue Review

43. In which segment of the renal tubule does roughly 75-80%of reabsorption occur?
44. How are proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) cells similar toenterocytes of the small intestine?
45. What are the three layers through which the filtrate mustpass starting from inside the glomerular capillary through to theurinary space?
46. Under normal circumstances in a healthy individual, wouldred blood cells or any other cells be present in the renalfiltrate?
47. In aIDition to providing nutrients to the kidney tubules,what is one other function of the capillaries in the peritubularcapillary bed?

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