1) Blood isolated from an emergency room patient contains antibodies against the measles virus. Please explain whether or not the patient should be quarantined immediately because they are infected with the measles virus and why? What are the other plausible explanations for anti-measles antibodies in the patient’s blood?
2) Describe how the clonal expansion theory explains the more rapid production of antigen specific antibodies, Helper T-cells and Cytotoxic T-cells, during a secondary infection.
3) Positive diagnosis of AIDS is made when a patient has antibodies against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Please explain why the patient has an immune deficiency if he or she is making antibodies?
4) Characterize the differences and similarities between innate and adaptive immunity in form and function.
5) What is the effect of discharging primary-treated sewage on the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved O2 (DO) of the receiving body of water? What is the effect of secondary-treated sewage on the BOD and DO?
6) A newspaper headline reported “Algal Bloom Kills Fish.” As you read, you find that the algae did not produce toxins. Please explain what actually caused fish death, given that the algae are not toxic? What could have caused the algal bloom?
7) Explain the data from a bioremediation experiment in Table 1 below.
8) What is fermentation and how can it be used to preserve foods? Please give specific examples in your explanation.
9) Compare and contrast how a farmer would use Rhizobium versus Bacillus thuringiensis? Are there any other types of microbes the farmer could use for similar purposes?
10) Salmonella heidelberg gastroenteritis occurred on three cruises aboard the T.S.S. Festivale.
a. Explain the incidence pattern shown on the graph.
b. What are probable modes of transmission?
c. What changes would you recommend before the ship books more cruises?