Hi I need this 5 questions answered. It really doesn’t need to be long! Just 3-4 sentences per question.
1. How much interest would you have in Stan’s early childhood? What are some ways you’d help him see patterns between his childhood issues and his current problems?
2. Consider the transference relationship that is likely to be established between you and Stan. How might you react to his making you into a significant person in his life?
3. In working with Stan, what countertransference issues might arise for you?
4. What resistances and defenses might you predict in your work with Stan? From a psychoanalytic perspective, how would you interpret and work with this resistance?
5. Which of the various forms of psychoanalytic therapy—classical, relational, or object relations—would you be most inclined to apply in working with Stan?
Psychoanalytic Therapy Applied to the Case of Stan
In each of the theory chapters, the case of Stan is used to demonstrate the practical applications of the theory in question. Refer to the last section of Chapter 1, (see attachment) where Stan’s biography is given, to refresh your memory of his central concerns.
The psychoanalytic approach focuses on the unconscious psychodynamics of Stan’s behavior. Considerable attention is given to material that he has repressed. At the extreme, Stan demonstrated a self-destructive tendency, which is a way of inflicting punishment on himself. Instead of directing his hostility toward his parents and siblings, he turned it inward. Stan’s preoccupation with drinking could be hypothesized as evidence of an oral fixation. Because he never received love and acceptance during his early childhood, he is still suffering from this deprivation and continues to desperately search for approval and acceptance from others. Stan’s gender-role identification was fraught with difficulties. He learned the basis of female–male relationships through his early experiences with his parents. What he saw was fighting, bickering, and discounting. His father was the weak one who always lost, and his mother was the strong, domineering force who could and did hurt men. Stan generalized his fear of his mother to all women. It could be further hypothesized that the woman he married was similar to his mother, both of whom reinforced his feelings of impotence.
The opportunity to develop a transference relationship and work through it is the core of the therapy process. Stan will eventually relate to me, as his therapist, as he did to his father, and this process will be a valuable means of gaining insight into the origin of Stan’s difficulties in relating to others. The analytic process stresses an intensive exploration of Stan’s past. Stan devotes much therapy time to reliving and exploring his early past. As he talks, he gains increased understanding of the dynamics of his behavior. He begins to see connections between his present problems and early experiences in his childhood. Stan explores memories of relationships with his siblings and with his mother and father and also explores how he has generalized his view of women and men from his view of these family members. It is expected that he will reexperience old feelings and uncover buried feelings related to traumatic events. From another perspective, apart from whatever conscious insight Stan may acquire, the goal is for him to have a more integrated self, where feelings split off as foreign (the id) become more a part of what he is comfortable with (the ego). In Stan’s relationship with me, his old feelings can have different outcomes from his past experiences with significant others and can result in deep personality growth.
I am likely to explore some of these questions with Stan: “What did you do when you felt unloved?” “As a child, what did you do with your negative feelings?” “As a child, could you express your anger, hurt, and fears?” “What effects did your relationship with your mother and father have on you?” “What did this teach you about women and about men?” Brought into the here and now of the transference relationship, I might ask, “When have you felt anything like you felt with your parents?”
The analytic process focuses on key influences in Stan’s developmental years, sometimes explicitly, sometimes in terms of how those earlier events are being relived in the present analytic relationship. As he comes to understand how he has been shaped by these past experiences, Stan is increasingly able to exert control over his present functioning. Many of Stan’s fears become conscious, and then his energy does not have to remain fixed on defending himself from unconscious feelings. Instead, he can make new decisions about his current life. He can do this only if he works through the transference relationship, however, for the depth of his endeavors in therapy largely determine the depth and extent of his personality changes.
If I am operating from a contemporary object-relations psychoanalytic orientation, my focus may well be on Stan’s developmental sequences. Particular attention is paid to understanding his current behavior in the world as largely a repetition of one of his earlier developmental phases. Because of his dependency, it is useful in understanding his behavior to see that he is now repeating patterns that he formed with his mother during his infancy. Viewed from this perspective, Stan has not accomplished the task of separation and individuation. He is still “stuck” in the symbiotic phase on some levels. He is unable to obtain his confirmation of worth from himself, and he has not resolved the dependence–independence struggle. Looking at his behavior from the viewpoint of self psychology can shed light on his difficulties in forming intimate relationships.