please list references

Personality Disorders, Current Controversies

What is the difference between observed patterns of personality and a personality disorder? Although some patterns of behavior may contribute to an individual’s personality, not all personality patterns may be disorders. For example, if a person is described as cold, cerebral, and rigid, these are patterns that might affect his or her personality, but may not lead to a diagnosed disorder. As defined in the DSM, “A personality disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of one’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment” (APA, 2013, p. 645).

Specifically, personality disorders, such as antisocial personality disorders and borderline personality disorders, present pervasive, maladaptive pattern of inner experience and behavior that violate social norms such as trust, honesty, and personal value.

For this Discussion, consider current controversies in the diagnosis of personality disorders, with specific attention to borderline personality disorders and antisocial personality disorders. Additionally, think about how culture and gender influences the diagnosis of personality disorders.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post by Day 4 a brief explanation of how culture and gender may influence diagnoses of clients with personality disorders. Then, explain one controversy associated with the diagnosis of women with borderline personality disorder and one controversy associated with the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder in men.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources and current literature.

References

  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
    • Personality Disorders
  • Paris, J. (2015). The intelligent clinician’s guide to the DSM-5 (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from the Walden Library.
    • Chapter 14, Personality Disorders
  • Crosby, J. P., & Sprock, J. (2004). Effect of patient sex, clinician sex, and sex role on the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder: Models of underpathologizing and overpathologizing biases. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60(6), 583–604. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Jovev, M., McKenzie, T., Whittle, S., Simmons, J. G., Allen, N. B., & Chanen, A. M. (2013). Temperament and maltreatment in the emergence of borderline and antisocial personality pathology during early adolescence. Journal Of The Canadian Academy Of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(3), 220–229. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

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