List the stages of psychosocial development, according to Erik Erikson (Recall). Write them in chronological order—including years for each.


  1. Concepts

Describe—define (in your own words), explain (or aID detail) & provide an example:

  1. Nature-This is what people inherit from their biological parents, especially their genes. Genes determine a person’s body’s blueprint. Do they have blonde hair? Do they have Down syndrome? For example, my mother had blonde hair and my father had brunette hair. I inherited my father’s brunette hair.
  2. Nurture-Is the sum of the environment and social experiences that influence the behavior of a person. This goes beyond genes and focuses on how a person is raised. For example, children are taught different values based on their culture. Some cultures are individualistic (U.S.) while others are collectivist (Japan). In Japan a child might be taught that their behavior should be what benefits the group not the self.
  3. Discontinuous (tie in stage—see Erikson or Piaget)-This is the belief that people develop in age related stages. These stages are divided into eight by Erikson. For a person to advance they must reach the goal of each stage. For example, as a newborn the crisis is trust vs. mistrust. The newborn must have its needs (be held and comforted by the parents) meet to develop otherwise they will go into the next age related stage with mistrust about the world.
  1. Schema (schemata for plural)-Is a plan for an action that determines a person’s behavior. A schema is used to organize prior knowledge to provide a framework for future learning about the world. For example, stereotypes about different cultures and the people apart of them. People from other countries might think that I, as an American, don’t eat gluten or I only eat fast food from McDonalds.
  1. Attachment-
  1. Self-Concept


  1. Associative learning
  1. Reinforcement


  1. Shaping
  2. Observational learning (social-learning theory)





  1. Questions–Thinking Skills

Provide an answer for each of the following questions.  Answers should be written using full sentences (2-3).  The thinking skill is in parentheses after the question.

  1. List the stages of psychosocial development, according to Erik Erikson (Recall). Write them in chronological order—including years for each.
  1. Apply Erik Erikson’s theory to your life.
  2. Identify and describe what stage of development he would say you’re in.
  1. How valid is his description of your stage (Analysis)?  You should provide at least a few details about yourself.  If his theory is not accurate for you, discuss why that might be (your ideas—or tie in emerging adulthood from the textbook).
  1. List the stages of cognitive development, according to Jean Piaget (Recall). Write them in chronological order.
  1. Cognitive milestones of children and adults that have been discovered recently have undermined Piaget’s theory. Identify some of those milestones or stages and how they are contrary to Piaget’s ideas.  (Analysis)  (look in both 9.2 and 9.3 of the textbook).

Both stage theories.

  1. Describe Lawrence Kohlberg’s development view of morality. What criticisms has his work drawn?
  1. Substances or exposures that pregnant women have that cause harm to their fetus are called teratogens. Should government funding be provided for educating females about those dangers?  Does it matter whether the individual is a youth?  Take a position and defend it.  If so, how should girls and women (men, too?) be informed? Another approach (discussed in the textbook) would be incarcerating women with substance-abuse problems who fail to terminate their alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy (Application).
  1. Evaluate the statement, “Newborns are so cute. They hardly know what’s going on around them.  They’re like a lump of clay.” (use your textbook to tie in info. regarding sensory abilities and reflexes)
  1. The Nature v. Nuture debate has arisen in terms of language development.

Which of the 5 theories of this course fits Skinner’s view?  ____________

(look back at ch. 1.2 or your Theories slides).


Which of the 5 theories of this course fits Chomsky’s view?  ____________

(you might check a dictionary for the meaning of innate and your Theories slides).


  1. Describe what infants are like who have a secure attachment to their caregiver (parent). What role does that parent play in promoting that type of attachment, according to John Bowlby?
  1. Which parenting style leads to a child’s having a positive self-concept (Recall)? _____________________________            Describe it.  Then discuss–
  2. Why do you think that style is effective (Analysis)?
  3. Changing parenting, which likely reflects how an individual was raised, is difficult. How might parents be encouraged to adopt that parenting style?  (be strategic! consider your experience with getting people to change) (Synthesis).


  1. What are the major changes that occur during adolescence?

Describe at least 1 physical, 1 cognitive, and 1 psychosocial aspect of development for this period.

  1. Adulthood is not a plateau, but rather a sequence of periods. List them, along with the corresponding ages (identified in Adulthood—Physical Dev. section of the textbook)?

__________________         __________________         __________________

Given the obvious declines across these periods, why do gerontologists claim that disability in old age is mostly preventable (Analysis)?

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