i need answers to these questions 1

1. Describe the function and major characteristics of the innate immune system.

a. Intact epithelium, pH, lysozyme etc.

b. Pathogen recognition receptors, acute phase reactants, phagocytosis etc.

2. Describe the function of the following cells:



Basophil/mast cell line.

Monocyte/macrophage cell line.

3. Discuss the role of the granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils) in innate immunity.

4. Describe the leukocytes capable of phagocytosis

5. Describe the process of phagocytosis, including formation of the phagosomeand phagolysosome

6. Relate the mechanism known as “respiratory burst” to the destruction of microbial cells with emphasis on the enzymes involved and that the toxic compounds produced:

Superoxidase dismutase



NADPH oxidase

Superoxide anion


Hydrogen peroxide

Hydroxyl ion

7. Describe the location and function of the following:

Langerhans cells,

Kupffer cells,



8. Describe the appearance and functions of dendritic cells

9. Explain the inflammatory response, with emphasis on the vascular and cellular responses

10. Describe the 4 major signs of acute inflammation.

11. Explain the difference between acute inflammation and chronic inflammation

12. List the major acute phase reactants and their biologic function in response to tissue damage.

13. Describe their utility in monitoring acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, heart disease and post-surgical status with specific reference to the two most commonly used:

a. C-Reactive Protein

b. Fibrinogen

14. Identify the components of the complement system and its activation during the immune response

15. List the protein components of the complement system and classify them according to their activity

a. Recognition unit

b. Activation unit

c. Membrane attack unit [MAC]

16. Compare the classical, alternate, and MBL pathways of complement activation

17. Outline the order of reaction of each component in the classical, alternative and MBL pathways

18. Describe the conditions necessary for the activation of each pathway.

19. List the classes of antibody that can activate the classical complement.

20. Explain how the classical and alternative complement pathways are activated.

21. Explain how complement activity is important in each of the following:

a. Immune adherence,

b. Anaphylaxis,

c. Chemotaxis,

d. Opsonization

e. Cell lysis.

22. Correlate the bioactive products of complement activation with their immunologic activities.

23. Identify the enzymes activated during C’ activation and amplification

24. Identify and describe examples of the activity of the control mechanisms of the complement system

25. Define Specific Immunity (adaptive immunity

26. Describe the major characteristics of the specific immune response

a. Specificity

b. Immunologic memory,

c. Differentiation of self from non-self

d. Regulation of immune activities

27. Describe the acquisition of the specific immune response in terms of active and passive immunity with examples of each of the following:

i. Naturally acquired active immunity

ii. Artificially acquired active immunity

iii. Naturally acquired passive immunity

iiii. Artificially acquired passive immunity

28. Discuss the role of the primary lymphoid tissues in the development, maturation and commitment of the lymphoid cells

29. Describe the structure and function of the thymus and discuss its role in T-cell development including:

30. Describe the structure and function of the lymph nodes including

i. Primary and secondary follicles,

ii. Cortex and medulla

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