1. Which of the following mechanisms would be necessary in order for Lamarck’s theory of evolution to be valid?a) The nervous system causes specific mutations of DNA.b) Mutations occur at random locations in DNA.c) All parts of the body contribute to the genetic information in the gamete.d) Proteins direct their own replication.e) One parent’s gametes are diploid.
2. It is often stated that most new mutations are recessive. Which of the following assumptions would be most important in arguing for this statement?a) Most individuals are heterozygous for most of their genes.b) Most individuals are homozygous for most of their genes.c) Most existing alleles are recessive.d) Most existing alleles are dominant.e) Mutations are rare events.
3. A sample of butterflies contained 50% yellow-winged individuals and 50% black-winged individuals. In this species, wing color is determined by a single gene with two alleles, and the allele for black is dominant. Which of the following statements about the allele frequencies in the sample would most likely be true? Do not assume that this sample was obtained from a population in genetic equilibrium.a) The frequency of the yellow allele is greater than that of the black allele.b) The allele frequency of yellow is 3 times the allele frequency of black.c) The allele frequency of yellow is twice the allele frequency of black.d) The allele frequencies of black and yellow are equal.e) The allele frequency of black is greater than the allele frequency of yellow.
4. Now assume that the population of butterflies sampled in question 3 is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Also assume that the sample is random and large enough that the allele frequencies in the sample equal the allele frequencies in the population. What is the frequency of the allele for yellow wings in the population?