Detailed about energy conversions and trophic levels

I. Multiple choice questions.

1. In October of 2003, a raging wildfire swept through the mountain ecosystems in Southern California, burning everything in its path to the ground and driving away all of the animals. In order for the mountain ecosystem to establish itself, which member of the food web has to return first?
1. Deer
2. Coyotes
3. Snake
4. Grasses

2. Suppose you conduct an experiment which simulates glacial recession over time. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?
1. Glacial mass
2. Sunlight
3. The season
4. Time

3. How many dependent variables can be tested during any single experiment?
1. 4
2. 3
3. 2
4. 1

4. The effectiveness of a medication containing growth hormones is tested on a group of young male rabbits 3 weeks of age. The best control group would be:
1. Any group of rabbits
2. A group of male rabbits, three weeks old, not given the medication
3. A group of female rabbits, three weeks old, not given the medication
4. A mixed group of male/female rabbits, three weeks old, not given the medication
5. No control is required; just measure whether the rabbits grew

5. When writing a lab report or a research paper, you need to show what the difference is between the “Results” section and the “Discussion” section. Which of the following is correct?
1. The Discussion analyzes data, whereas the Resultsanalyzes the procedure.
2. The Discussion analyzes data, whereas the Resultsdisplays data.
3. The Discussion displays data, whereas the Resultsanalyzes the Discussion.
4. The Discussion displays the procedure, whereas the Resultsanalyzes the data.

6. What characteristic of carbon makes it a good backbone for creating diverse and durable molecules?
1. Carbon is a large atom
2. Carbon forms four covalent bonds
3. Carbon forms hydrogen bonds
4. All of the above

7. Which of the following reactions or pathways is catabolic?
1. Converting glucose to carbon dioxide and water (cellular respiration)
2. Making starch from many glucose monomers
3. Photosynthesis, which builds glucose from carbon dioxide using energy from light
4. Making ATP from ADP and phosphate

8. One human disease is caused by a change in the DNA from GAA to GUA. This change is an example of:
1. Crossing-over
2. A meiosis error
3. A mitosis error
4. A mutation

9. What subatomic particles are found in the nucleus?
1. Elecctrons
2. Protons
3. Neutrons
4. Protons and neutrons
5. Protons and electrons

10. Which of the following describes H20, NaCl, CO2, and HCl?
1. All are acids
2. All are gases
3. All are salts
4. All are inorganic molecules

11. Which of the following correctly describes a buffer?
1. A buffer converts an alkaline solution to neutral
2. A buffer converts an acid solution to neutral.
3. A buffer converts alkaline solutions to acid solutions.
4. A buffer converts strong bases or acids to weak bases or acids.

12. Which term does not belong in this list?
1. Acid
2. Vinegar
3. Hydrogen ion donor
4. pH 8
5. Lactic acid

13. The process in which molecules spread randomly from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration is:
1. Filtration
2. Diffusion
3. Exocytosis
4. Osmosis

14. Organize the following solutions from most concentrated to least concentrated: hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic.
1. Hypotonic>Hypertonic>Isotonic
2. Hypertonic>Hypotonic>Isotonic
3. Hypertonic>Isotonic>Hypotonic
4. Isotonic>Hypotonic>Hypertonic

15. The rate of diffusion depends on which of the following?
1. The medium
2. The size of the molecule
3. The polarity
4. All of the above
5. A. and C. only

16. All of the following are examples of elements except
1. Oxygen
2. Water
3. Hydrogen
4. Carbon

17. What would happen to a eukaryotic cell, if too much osmotic pressure develops within a cell?
1. The cell would remain the same size, but the internal organelles would become dehydrated
2. The cell would decrease in size, and could collapse.
3. The cell would increase in size, and could lyse.
4. Nothing, osmotic pressure does not impact the cell.

18. Inthe following chemical reaction, what is carbon dioxide (CO2)?
12 H20 + 6 CO2 = 1 glucose molecule + 6 O2
A. substrate
B. product
C. enzyme
D. activation factor
E. independent variable

19. The bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons is a_________ bond.
1. Polar
2. Hydrogen
3. Ionic
4. Covalent

20. Which of the following terms includes all of the chemical reactions that occur within a cell?
1. Cellular respiration
2. Catabolism
3. Redox reactions
4. Metabolism
5. Phosphorylation

21. Within a cell, energy released by electrons is often used to phosphorylate which of the following molecules?
1. ADP
2. ATP
3. Pyruvate ions
4. Oxygen
5. NAD

22. All of the following apply to glycolysis except
1. Occurs without oxygen
2. Degrades glucose to H2O and CO2
3. Ends with formation of pyruvic acid
4. Occurs during fermentation

23. In which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?
1. Processing of pyruvic acid for the Krebs cycle
2. Electron transport chain
3. Glycolysis
4. The Krebs cycle
5. All phases produce the same number of ATP molecules

24. The energy of the sun is converted into usable energy for the cell in the form of _________.
1. ADP
2. ATP
3. Glucose
4. CO2

25. The starting materials of photosynthesis are _____________
1. Oxygen and glucose
2. Carbon dioxide and oxygen
3. Carbon dioxide and water
4. Oxygen and water

26. What type of macro-molecule is frequently an enzyme?
1. Carbohydrate
2. Nucleic acid
3. Lipid
4. Protein

27. What function do enzymes perform?
1. Increase substrate concentration
2. Increase the temperature
3. Increase the activation energy required for a reaction to occur
4. Decrease the activation energy required for a reaction to occur

28. The most important aspect of cellular respiration is that ___________________
1. It is the process that occurs only in animal cells
2. It is the process that utilizes fat as its primary energy source
3. It is the process that enables living organisms to utilize the energy stored in glucose
4. It is the only cellular process that yields ATP

29. The statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth is
1. Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2
2. Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2
3. Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O
4. Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O

30. What is the function of the ribosome?
1. Digestion
2. RNA duplication
3. Mobility
4. Protein synthesis

31. What is the function of the lysosome?
1. Prokaryotic digestion
2. Eukaryotic digestion
3. Prokaryotic mobility
4. Eukaryotic mobility

32. In what stage of the cell cycle is genetic content replicated?
1. Interphase
2. Prophase
3. Metaphase
4. Anaphase
5. Telophase

33. How many chromatids comprise a duplicated chromosome?
1. One
2. Two
3. Three
4. Four

34. Which of the following could not be a sequence of RNA?

35. The product of meiosis includes which of the following?
1. Haploid cells
2. Genetically unique cells
3. Four daughter cells
4. All of the above
5. A. and C. only

36. Often referred to as the Central Dogma, identify the traditional sequence of protein synthesis.
1. DNA->RNA->Protein
2. RNA->DNA->Protein
3. Protein->RNA->DNA
4. Protein->DNA->RNA

37. In humans, the allele for dimples (D) is dominant. The allele for not having dimples (d) is recessive. If a woman (ID) and a man (ID) have four children, how many of the children will not have dimples?
1. 0
2. 1
3. 2
4. 3
5. 4

38. Which of the following variations could be subject to natural selection?
1. A dog with short legs due to malnutrition is able to crawl into holes better than his litter mates.
2. A tree is not infested by a ground-dwelloing beetle when the homeowener cuts the lower branches.
3. A hyena is born with a spotted fur pattern that allows it to hide in the grass better than his litter mates.
4. A pigeon learns that’s when its keeper comes near, it will be fed.
5. All of these variations may be acted on by natural selection.

39. What do plants and animals have in common?
1. They are both heterotrophic
2. They are both autotrophic
3. They are both prokaryotic
4. They are both eukaryotic
5. They are both hydrophobic

40. Which of the following is not a characteristic of fungi?
1. Cells have cell walls
2. Photosynthetic
3. Include single-celled and filamentous forms
4. Can use a wide variety of nutrient

41. Microevolution is defined as:
1. Changes in population size
2. Changes in the frequency of alleles in the gene pool
3. Changes in the composition of the population
4. Emergence of new species
5. Changes in community size

42. A zorse is the offspring produced through interbreeding between a horse and a zebra. Zorses are often preferred for riding because of their physical shape, but they are sterile. According to Linnaean taxonomy, are zebras and horses classified in the same species?
1. Yes
2. No
3. Sometimes
4. Not enough information to determine

43. Red rose color is incompletely dominant over white rose color. If a red rose is crossed with a pink rose, what percentage of the offspring will be pink?
1. 100
2. 75
3. 50
4. 25

44. Honey bees engage in entomophily, pollination through pollen distribution, as part of the process to produce honey. What is entomophily an example of?
1. Ecosystem
2. Niche
3. Community
4. Habitat

45. Themajority of climate scientists suggest that the current change in climate is caused predominantly by ________.
1. An enhancement of the greenhouse effect
2. A decreased reliance on fossil fuels for energy
3. A thinning of the ozone layer
4. A melting of the polar ice caps
5. An increase in solar radiation

46. Which of the following is not an expected effect of global climate change?
1. A rise in the sea levels
2. Flooding of coastal cities
3. Decrease in the size of glaciers and ice sheets
4. Increase in the size of glacier and ice sheets
5. More extreme weather

47. If a wolf eats a rodent which ate a small insect which ate a plant, the wolf would be a(n)
1. Autotroph
2. Primary producer
3. Primary consumer
4. Secondary consumer
5. Tertiary consumer

48. The organisms that represent the different species within an ecosystem that interact in various ways, comprise a _______________
1. Population
2. Trophic level
3. Species
4. Community
5. Habitat

49. Inheritable mutations, which may allow a population to evolve, are produced
1. As a response to selection pressure
2. By chance
3. By natural selection
4. As a response to environmental pressure
5. By artificial selection

50. The ability of fireflies and angler fish to produce light is an example of convergent evolution. What can you conclude about these two animals based on this information?
1. They share a recent common ancestor
2. The ability to produce light is an ancient trait
3. They are found in the same location
4. They are both adapted to environments which are low in light
5. All of the above

II. Matching of definitions and terms.

____ DNA with attached proteins
____ A haploid cell that combines with another haploid cell during fertilization
____ Converts light energy to chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose or starch
____ A specific portion of a chromosome that contains information for a particular inherited trait
____ An interaction during meiosis in which chromatids exchange segments; it results in genetic recombination
____ Nucleotide that drives most energy-requiring metabolic reaction
____ Extracts energy stored in carbohydrates; synthesizes ATP; produces water and carbon dioxide
____ The process in which ribosomes synthesize proteins using the mRNA transcript
____ The synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template
____ Are primary cellular structures (or components) where proteins are assembled

1. ATP
2. chromosome
3. crossing over
4. chloroplast
5. gamete
6. DNA molecules
7. gene
8. germ cell
9. meiosis
10. central vacuoles
11. lysosomes
12. mitochondrion
13. mitosis
14. translation
15. transcription
16. ribosomes
17. microtubules
18. Golgi bodies
19. RNA molecules
20. nucleoli

III. True-False questions.

1. Diffusion will occur, if a concentration gradient exists.
1. True
2. False

2. When a founder population has a small gene pool, evolutionary change is more likely to be rapid than if the founder population has a large gene pool.
1. True
2. False

3. Stabilizing selection is a pattern of natural selection that favors an average, not extreme, expression of a trait.
1. True
2. False

4. Once an adaptive feature appears, it remains in all the descendant unless the species becomes extinct.
1. True
2. False

5. Humans are more likely to be infected by viruses after the viruses had a chance to multiply outside the body on surfaces touched by infected people.
1. True
2. False

IV. Matching of Terms/Concepts with Definitions/Associations.

Term or Concept

Water molecule ___
Carbon ___
Homeostasis ___
Ionic Bonding ___
Covalent Bonding ___
Carbohydrate ___
Enzyme ___
Acid ___
Base ___
Lipid ___

1. energy source
2. two atoms sharing electrons
3. electron donated/received
4. hydrophobic
5. element found in all living organisms
6. catalyst
7. OH- > H+
8. polar
9. characteristic of all living organisms
10. H+> OH-

V. Brief essay questions:

1. The habitat of one species of tropical fish is red coral reefs. The large majority of the fish in this populations are red. A few individual fish carry a mutation that prevents the production of the red pigment; as a result, these fish are white. The temperature of the ocean where these fish live becomes warmer and warmer over a ten year period, and, as a result, the coral is bleached and turns white. Use what you have learned about natural selection to explain how this bleaching event may have affected the evolution of this fish population (not including possible direct effects of warmer temperatures for the fish). Include the following terms in your explanation: Differential reproduction, beneficial trait, allele frequency, selection pressure, evolution (5 possible points)

2. You scoop up a water sample from a local pond nearby, because you are curious about the possible microbes that might live there. After looking at several slides that held drops of the sample, you noticed two different kinds of cells: One kind was very small and had no separate internal structures; the other kind was much larger, and it contained several kinds of internal structures that were physically different from each other. Please name each cell and briefly describe their overall similarities and differences. (5 possible points)

3. Humans share 99% of their genes with chimpanzees, 90% with mice, 50% with fruit flies, and 37% with celery. Please explain the evolutionary significance of these data. Phylogenetic details here are essential.

4. A population of pygmy-deer becomes re-established on an island after having been absent for a very long time. They are given ‘protective status’, and flourish in numbers. Then an unusually long and harsh winter happens. The deer are seen eating bark, raiding bird feeders, and some die. Describe both the density-dependent and density independent factors at work here, and explain what might be happening to this population. Terms such as carrying capacity, and birth and death rates must be part of your discussion.

5. When a rabbit eats the lettuce in your garden, all of the energy in the lettuce is used by the rabbit. Is this statement true or false? Defend your answer. Your answer must be detailed about energy conversions and trophic levels.

6. Before recombinant products were available, humans who needed hormones or other biological products, such as insulin, had to use products that were harvested from other humans and non-human animals. Can you think of specific health risks that might be associated with products that were not made with genetically engineered bacteria?

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