case analysis end stage kidney disease case analysis

**** ALL RESOURCES NEED TO BE APPROVED AND PEER REVIEWED AND CITED

textbook:

Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach with Mastering A&P

  • Author: Silverthorn, D.
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Edition: 8th (2019)

The goal of this assignment is to show that you understand the importance of the liver, pancreas, and kidneys in the proper functioning of the human body.

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Sarah, a 63year-old female with a past medical history significant for diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, gout, and a 30-pack a year smoking history, presents to the emergency room

with chest pain revealing pericarditis in the echocardiogram, secondary to recently diagnosed end-stage renal disease. Physical examination reveals yellowish discoloration to the skin and sclera, multiple bruises, and 2+ bilateral edema. Sarah reports weakness lasting more than three weeks. Her medications include Glisten, a new drug for diabetes that causes ATP sensitive potassium channels to close, thereby releasing insulin.

Her recent laboratory results are as follows:

CBC

Sodium

126 mEq/L

Glucose

220 mmol/L

Calcium

7.1 mg/dl

Red blood cell count

3.9 cells / ul

Vitals

Blood pressure

92/64 mmHg

Blood Gases

pH

7.28

CO2

30 mmHg

HCO3

12 mmol/L

Hormone Panel

Renin

Low

ADH

Elevated

Aldosterone

Low

Vitamins

Vit D

low

Vit K

low

Vit E

low

Vit A

low

Urine and Stool Sample

Stool color

Gray

Stool content

Increased fat content

Urine color

White

Address each of the following regarding Sarah’s case:

  1. Explain the cause for her low calcium and sodium levels.
  2. Explain the cause of her anemia. What laboratory test should indicate she is suffering from anemia?
  3. Explain the cause of her hypotension. How will her body attempt to establish homeostasis?
  4. What type of acid-base disorder has she developed, and how will her body compensate?
  5. Explain the cause of her elevated ADH and glucose levels.
  6. What is the correlation between her illnesses and the low vitamins (D, K, E, and A), renin, and aldosterone levels?
  7. Which hormone would the body elevate in response to her low calcium levels? Why?
  8. Explain the physiological reason behind her physical findings (yellowish hint of the skin, sclera, multiple bruises, weakness, and edema).
  9. Explain the cause of her abnormal stool and urine sample.
  10. What cell does Glisten work on? Explain how this medication is able to stimulate insulin secretion.

Specifics

  • Support your opinions with evidence from your readings and research.
  • You must reference a minimum of three (3) scholarly sources in your paper, which includes one non-Internet source.
  • Use current APA format to style your paper and to cite your sources.
  • Your paper/total responses must be 3–4 pages in length not including the title page, abstract, and reference pages.

Review the rubric for more information on how the assignment will be graded. Submit your assignment here in Blackboard by the due date.

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