Describe the journey of a hypothetical enveloped (-) RNA virus through three basic host barriers to infection: Physical b arriers, Innate immune response and adaptive immune response. After overcoming physical barriers, how are viruses recognized at each step, what cells are involved, what soluble factors are involved, which adaptive immune effector cells recognize F and N viral proteins and how is the virus eliminated at each step? For simplicity, let’s assume the only the Fusion Protein (F) and Nucleoprotein (N) are recognized by the adaptive immune response (500 words max).
Almost all viruses have to produce viral proteins that aid evasion of the host immune response. For each of the viral proteins listed below, explain why the activity described would enable the virus to avoid immune response. What aspect of the immune response does the protein inhibit (intrinisic, innate or adaptive) Limit response to 4-5 sentence/protein.
a) In aIDition, to facilitating transcription of viral genes, the P protein also inhibits the TAP1 transporter located in the membrane of the ER membrane.
b) In aIDition to coating the viral RNA, the N protein inhibits the host enzyme PKR.
c) Matrix protein M bines to the host myd88 protein and inhibits its ability to transduce signals in the cell.