26 human anatomy questions

1.

(01.01 LC)

Gross anatomy is the study of (2 points)

2.

(01.01 MC)

Which of the following activities would most likely be done by a physiologist? (2 points)

3.

(01.02 MC)

A medical student makes a transverse cut of a cadaver’s leg. The two resulting sections could be referred to as the (2 points)

4.

(01.02 MC)

Which of the following is an example of homeostasis? (2 points)

5.

(01.02 MC)

This diagram shows the anterior side of the body of a female. The gall bladder is located in the upper right corner of the abdominal cavity, just to the right of the bodys midline. The two ovaries are located in the lower left and lower right corners of the abdominal cavity, respectively. Each ovary is below and the gall bladder and further from the bodys midline.

© Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com 2013

Based on the diagram, the gallbladder can be considered ______________ and the ovaries can be considered _______________ in reference to the body’s midline. (2 points)

6.

(01.02 MC)

This image shows four views of the human skull from different angles, labeled A through D. A shows an interior view of the front of the skull. Letter B shows an interior view of the left side of the skull. Letter C shows an interior view looking down into the skull from above. Letter D shows an exterior view of the back of the skull.

© Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com 2013

An anatomist needs to cut a skull open with a transverse cut. Which of the diagrams correctly shows how the cut should appear? (2 points)

7.

(01.03 MC)

Injury to which tissues will greatly reduce the ability of a person to move his or her limbs? (2 points)

8.

(01.03 MC)

A person develops a disease that reduces cell communication within the body. This disease most likely targets the ____________ tissue. (2 points)

9.

(01.03 MC)

In creating a replacement organ using stem cells, a doctor first creates a replica of the patient’s current organ. This is necessary to (2 points)

10.

(01.03 MC)

Many researchers hope pig organs will one day be successfully transplanted to humans. What would an advantage of successful pig-human transplants? (2 points)

11.

(01.03 MC)

This diagram shows a cross section of skin with three horizontal layers. There are several long black hairs protruding from the topmost layer of the skin, with the root hairs embedded within the deepest layer of the skin. The epidermis is the topmost layer of the skin, which is the thinnest layer and is composed of multiple cell sheets tightly packed on top of each other. The middle layer of skin is labeled the dermis which is the thickest layer. The dermis occupies approximately one half of the skin cross section and contains blood vessels and nerves. The deepest layer is labeled the hypodermis and is about twice the thickness of the outermost layer. It contains several round, yellowish cells as well as an artery, a vein, and a nerve running horizontally through the entire layer. Branches from the blood vessels and nerves travel up to the dermis. A table underneath the image describes the cells in the different layers of skin. It states that epidermis is composed of layered sheets of tightly packed cells that divide readily and have a poor blood supply. The dermis has a good blood supply and contains the nerve endings. The hypodermis contains a layer of fatty tissue for cushioning, good blood supply, and nerves.

© Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com 2013

Layer of Skin Description
Epidermis Layered sheets of tightly packed cells that divide readily; poor blood supply
Dermis Good blood supply; has nerve endings
Hypodermis Contains fatty layer for cushioning; good blood supply; has nerves

Based on the information in the table and diagram, which of the following is true? (2 points)

12.

(01.03 MC)

This image shows a males right arm with the tissue of the bicep muscle being called out from the upper arm. The callout reveals that the muscle tissue is densely packed and composed of cylinder shaped cells with many nuclei.

© Image Courtesy of 3DScience.com 2013

The diagram above shows where different types of tissues are found in the body. Based on the information in the image, where else may skeletal muscle be found in the body? (2 points)

13.

(01.03 MC)

Osteoarthritis is a disease that results in a thinned or absent layer of cartilage surrounding bones, causing bones to rub against one another. This causes both pain and loss of motion. Given this information, what type of tissue does osteoarthritis affect? (2 points)

14.

(01.03 MC)

A gland is an organ that synthesizes and releases a substance. There are two major types of glands: endocrine and exocrine. In some cases, the substance released by a gland lubricates tissues of the body that are commonly abraded. For example, mucus glands secrete mucus to help lubricate the passage of food through the digestive tract. Given this information, which type of tissue will likely contain mucus glands? (2 points)

15.

(01.03 MC)

Certain drugs, known as angiogenesis inhibitors, are effective anti-cancer drugs because they cut off the blood supply to tumors. Without blood supplying fresh oxygen and nutrients to the cancerous cells, the tumors cannot survive. Given this information, angiogenesis inhibitors will be least effective in treating tumors in (2 points)

16.

(01.05 LC)

The clavicle is likely part of the appendicular system because it is involved with movement of the (2 points)

17.

(01.05 LC)

The axial skeleton includes the (2 points)

18.

(01.05 MC)

Which of the choices below only contains bones of the pectoral girdle? (2 points)

19.

(01.05 MC)

The carpals are _____________bones found in the ___________________. (2 points)

20.

(01.06 LC)

Nutrients are brought to compact bone through which mechanism? (2 points)

21.

(01.06 LC)

Osteons are the basic organizational units of (2 points)

22.

(01.06 MC)

Low calcium levels in the blood can be raised by dissolving bone tissue. Which cell would most likely be involved in this process? (2 points)

23.

(01.06 MC)

You are a doctor who examines the x-ray of a broken bone, which is healing. What should you look for to indicate that the break is almost completely healed? (2 points)

24.

(01.06 MC)

You are an anthropologist analyzing bone remains from the grave of an ancient female human. Within one of the bones, you find an unusually high concentration of collagen. What does this suggest about the ancient female? (2 points)

SHORT ANSWERS:

25.

(01.03 HC)

Bone marrow is a soft, spongy, connective tissue found inside bones. Bone marrow contains stem cells, which can generate new blood cells and, therefore, can treat many diseases of the blood. In the past, extracting bone marrow from a donor required anesthesia and a long, large needle. The process often discouraged people from signing up to be donors. A process called apheresis has made the process much less painful and invasive. In apheresis, the donor’s blood passes through a sterile line into the machine. Once the blood is inside the machine, the bone marrow stem cells are extracted, and the remaining blood is returned to the donor. Donors typically only experience minor discomfort from the needles used and the loss of electrolytes.

Describe how you think this advance in biotechnology will affect individuals and society. Be sure to include any potential medical or ethical issues that could arise from this new practice. (5 points)

26.

(01.04 MC)

Describe how our skin darkens in the presence of sun. In your description, be sure to name the pigment that darkens our skin and describe how skin darkening protects our DNA from damage. (5 points)

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